Life and Ideas of Revolutionary Bhagat Singh and his Associates

This blog is to make available authentic information on life events , photos and ideas of Revolutionary Bhagat Singh and his compatriots.
This is supplementary to the web site

Thursday, November 18, 2010

A Contemporary poster widely circulated ,showing how high was placed Sh B K Dutta among his compatriot martyrs.

The poster captioned as AZAD Mandir built around Shaheed Chader Shekhar Azad , along with four Martys of Kakori, Raj Guru and Sukhdev ,along Bhagat Singh and at top is Martyr Jatindernath Das, who sacrificed after 63days of hunger strike. (This is being scientifically preserved by Our friend M Bugi sahib from Pakistan.)

What were these young revolutionary boys were mentally made up off? PART2

This article will make us understand how they prepared them selves psychologically for such a big chain of events.

Special on Birth Centenary of B K Dutta ( What was their psychology ,read the article by Sh B K Dutta : PART1

What were these revolutionaries boys made up of ?, who at the age of 18 and 21 could dare the most powerful British Empire with its unlimited "Satanic" power. Bhagat Singh said the biggest challenge is of Ideas ,put on the anvil with all the force and youthfulness ready to sacrifice all for these.
Here is an article by Sh B K Dutta written around 1960, about the life philosophy of Revolutionary young men. It is a quite concidence that B K Dutta started his revolutionary journey from Delhi on 8th April 1929 with big bang in the central assembally ( Current Parliament house) along with Bhagat Singh, and finally had his last day on 19th July 1965 in All India Medical & research Institute and finally meeting his compatriots at Hussainiwala in cremation.
Here is the article read it must : Here are first three pages . Next three pages follows in the next post

Wednesday, November 17, 2010

18 Nov 2010 mark Birth Centenary of Sh B K Dutta arch revolutionary companion of Shaheed Bhagat Singh in biggest challange to British Imperialism

The biggest challenge to British Imperialism was produced by these two young boys starting on 8th April 1929 till their parting on 12 July 1930. This is how Bhagat Singh recorded this parting on his Jail Note Book

18 November 2010 Birth Centenary of Sh B K Dutta Arch revolutionar companion of Shaheed Bhagat Singh , both together challenged British Imperialism

18 Year boy who along with 21 Year Bhagat Singh Challenged British Empire - Celebrate Birth Centenary of B K Dutta
18 Nov this year mark Birth centenary of Revolutionary Batukeshvar Dutta – the 18and a half year old boy who along with 21and a half year old Bhagat Singh , appeared in Central Assembly New Delhi on 8th April 1929 with big bang to shake the British Empire to its foundation. The event marked the beginning of awakening the Indian masses for achieving freedom from not only British Rule but built a society of equal opportunity for every one irrespective of caste, creed ,region and religion. In their words " A Swaraj for 90 percent and by 90 percent".
He represents the dormant youth power of India. He was so determined that all repression of "Satanic Power of British Empire " could not make him yield , so determined they were that nothing could stop the revolutionary challenge they threw on British Imperialism , So argumentative they were that it exposed the falseness of British Empire's arguments. Three institutions crumbled before these tiny feet. The legislative, the jail system and justice system.
These young boys loved the Indian masses so much that they put themselves on the alter of sacrifice not out of romance but out of revolutionary understanding and jeal.
The arguments were started with a leaflet thrown on the floor of Central Assembly followed by well argued statement in the sessions court, which was further strengthened in High Court.
They jointly launched the longest hunger strike for elimination of discrimination in jail between political prisoners and European prisoners, and to break the suffocating environment to a creative one . The hunger strike which went for 123 days . In the mean time Martyrdom of Jatinder Nath Dass awakened the whole India so that they marched with him .This lightened the whole environment in such a way that reluctant leaders could not stop the determined resolution of " SAMPURAN SWARAJ " i.e complete Independence and establishing 26 January 1930 on ward as Sampuran Swaraj Diwas. .
The third institution of Justice too crumbled. The best argumentative documents of Indian Freedom struggle came out under joint signatures of Bhagat Singh and Dutt, At that time the Punjabi house hold name was Bhagat singh-Dutta. The folk lore is witness to it.
I call upon Chief Minister of Punjab to announce this year of 2010 -2011 as year of Youth power dedicated to BK Dutta who was the Royal Prisoner of Punjab
I also call upon the Prime Minister Dr Manmohan singh to take initiative on behalf of the Indian nation to announce the birth centenary year of B K Dutta as the year of harnessing the Youth Power for advancing Indian vision of Freedom struggle. This must come from them as a part of duty towards history of freedom struggle
But above all I call upon the youth of India not to wait for any initiative from governments leaders but to celebrate the BK Dutta Birth Centenary to harness their dormant power ,which is represented by 18 year boy Kartar Singh Sarabha to 18 year old B K Dutta further strengthened by Bhagat Singh and other youth freedom fighters. The year dedicated to self discipline , maturity to understand the underlying argument of the prevalent system and dedicate and participate in helping people in distress .

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Shaheed Bhagat Singh on finer human sentiments such as love and meaning of Sacrifice

In a letter to Shaheed Sukhdev, Bhagat Singh expressed his understanding about finer human sentiments such as love and explained what sacrifice means. This was written just before going for Assembly action , dated 5th April,1929

By the way, I am say that I cannot help arguing once again my case in the matter under discussion. Again do I emphasize that I am full of ambition and hope and of full charm of life. But I can renounce all at the time of need, and that is the real sacrifice.
These things can never be hindrance in the way of man, provided he be a man. You will have the practical proof in the near future. While discussing anybody's character, you asked me one thing, whether love ever proved helpful to any man. Yes, I answer that question today.
To Mazzini it was. You must have read that after the utter failure and crushing defeat of his first rising he could no bear the misery and haunting ideas of his dead comrades. He would have gone mad or committed suicide but for one letter of a girl he loved. He would as strong as any one, nay stronger than all.
As regards the moral status of love I may say that it in itself is nothing BUT PASSION, not an animal passion but a human one, and very sweet too. Love in itself can never be an animal passion. Love always elevates the character of man. It never lowers him, provided love be love.
You can't call these girls - mad people, as we generally see in films - lovers. They always play in the hands of animals passions. The true love cannot be created. It comes of its own accord, nobody can say when. It is but natural. And I may tell you that a young man and a young girl can love each other, and with the aid of their love they can overcome the passions themselves and can maintain their purity.
I may clear one thing here; when I said that love has human weakness, I did not say it for an ordinary human being at this stage, where the people generally are. But that is most idealistic stage when man would overcome all these sentiments, the love, the hatred, and so on. When man will take reason as the sole basis of his activity. But at present it is not bad, rather good and useful to man. And moreover while rebuking the love. I rebuked the love of one individual for one, and that too in idealistic stage. And even then, man must have the strongest feelings of love which he may not confine to one individual and may make it universal. Now I think I have cleared my position. One thing I may tell you to mark; we in-spite of all radical ideas that we cherish, have not been able to do away with the over idealistic Arya Samajist conception of morality. We may talk glibly about all the radical things that can possible be conceived, but in practical life we begin to tremble at the very outset. This I will request you do away with. And may I, Without fear at all the misapprehension in my mind, request you do kindly lower the standard of your over-idealism a bit, not to be harsh to those who will live behind and will be the victims of a disease as myself ? Don't rebuke them and thus add to their woes and miseries. They need your sympathy. May I repeat that you, without bearing any sort of grudge against any particular individual, will sympathise with those who needed the most ? But you cannot realise these things unless and until you yourself fall a victim to this. But, why I am writing all this? I wanted to be frank. I have cleared my heart.
Wish you all success and happy life.

Sunday, September 26, 2010

AIM OF LIFE -a page from Jail Note book


Aim of life is no more to control mind, but to develop it harmoniously , not to achieve salvation hereafter, but to make the best use of the here below,and not to realise truth,beauty and good only in contemplation ,but also in the actual experience of daily life; social progress depends not upon the ennoblement of the few but on the enrichment of many; and spiritual democracy or universal brotherhood can be achieved only when there is an equality of opportunity in the social, political and individual life

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

Jail Notes By Shaheed Bhagat Singh in his own hand writting

This new series on the blog is being started to make  available hand written jail notes page by page
Pag1    Signatures and initials
Page 3

Page 3 of Notes taken by Shaheed Bhagat Singh ,READS
 "Lover , lunatic and poets are made of the same stuff "
* * *
 Inductive from particular to general
Deductive from general to particular
* * *
 Centrifugal -tending from the centre
 Centripetul - tending to the center
"My strength is the strength of oppressed , my courage is the courage of desperation"

 ****** Urdu couplet
"Kuri Khak hai gardash main tapash se meri,
 Majn vo majnu huan jo Jindan main bhi azad raha "

 " Money is the honey of mankind'

Tuesday, August 17, 2010

Spirituality a Tranquilizer for Rich

Shahid Bhagat Singh wrote  , " That was the turning point in my revolutionary career. " Study" was the cry that reverberated in the corridor of my mind. Study to enable yourself  to face the arguments advanced by opposition.Study to arm yourself with arguments in favour of your cult. I began to study. My previous faith and convictions underwent a remarkable modification, The romance of the violent methods alone which was so prominent amongst our predecessors , was replaced by serious ideas. No more mysticism , no more blind faith. Realism became our cult . Use of force justifiable when resorted to as a matter of terrible necessity: non-violence as policy indispensable for all mass movements "

Why I am Athiest , 5 Oct, 1930

Here is a speech by Javed Akhtar need careful reading and pondering

Speech: Javed Akhtar:

India Today conclave session on

 Spirituality – Halo or Hoax.

DAY 2, Saturday, February 26, 2005
Session: Spirituality – Halo or Hoax.


I am quite sure ladies and gentlemen, that in this august assembly nobody would envy my position at this moment. Speaking after such a charismatic and formidable personality like Sri Sri Ravi Shankar is like coming out of the pavilion to play after Tendulkar has made a sparkling century. But in some weak moment I had committed myself.

There are certain things that I would like to make very clear at the very outset. Don't get carried away by my name – Javed Akhtar. I am not revealing a secret, I am saying something that I have said many times, in writing or on TV, in public…I am an atheist, I have no religious beliefs. And obviously I don't believe in spirituality of some kind. Some kind.

Another thing. I am not standing here to criticize, analyze, or attack this gentleman who is sitting here. We have a very pleasant, civilized relation. I have always found him to be an extremely courteous person.

One is talking about an idea, an attitude, a mindset. Not any individual.

I must tell you that when Rajeev opened this session, for a moment I felt that I have come to the wrong place. Because, if we are discussing the philosophy of Krishan and Gautam and Kabir, Vivekanand, then I have nothing to say. I can sit down right now. I am not here to discuss a glorious past of which I suppose every Indian is proud, and rightly so. I am here to discuss a dubious present.

India Today has invited me and I have come here to talk of spirituality today. Let's not be confused by this word spirituality, you can find two people with the same name and they can be totally different people. Ram Charit Manas was written by Tulsidas. And the television film has been made by Ramanand Sagar. Ramayan is common but I don't think it would be very wise to club Tulsidas with Ramanand Sagar. I remember, when he had written Ramcharit Manas, he had faced a kind of a social boycott. How could he write a holy book in such a language like Avadhi? Sometimes I wonder fundamentalists of all hues and all colors, religions and communities…how similar they are. In 1798, a gentleman called Shah Abdul Qadir, in this very city, for the first time translated Quran in Urdu, and all the ulemas of that time gave fatwa against him that how could he translate this holy book in such a heathen language.

When Tulsi wrote Ramcharit Manas and he was boycotted, I remember a chowpai that he had written.

"Dhut kaho abdhut kaho rajput kaho ki julawa kohu

Kohu ki beti se beta na biahab, kohu ki jaat bigaar na chahu

Mang ke khaibo, mehjid ma raihbo, lebe ka ek na debe ka dohu"

Ramanand Sagar, when he made his television serial, he made millions. I am not undermining him, but obviously he is much lower in the rung.

I will give you another example. Perhaps it would be more direct and more appropriate. Gautam came out of a palace and went into wilderness to find the truth. But nowadays we see, the modern age gurus, come out of the wilderness and wind up in the palaces. They are moving in the opposite direction. We can't talk of them in the same breath. So let us not hide behind names which are dear and respectable for every Indian.

When I was invited to give this talk, I felt that yes, I am an atheist, try to be a rationalist in any given situation, Maybe that's why I have been called. But suddenly I have realized that there is another quality that I share with Modern Age gurus. I work in films. We have lot in common. Both of us, sell dreams, both of us create illusions, both of us create icons, but with a difference. After three hours we put a placard – the end. Go back to reality. They don't.

So ladies and gentlemen, let me make it very clear that I have come to talk of this spirituality that has a supermarket in the world. Arms, drugs and spirituality – these are the three big businesses in the world. But in arms and drugs you really have to do something, give something. That's the difference. Here you don't have to give anything.

In this supermarket you get instant Nirvana, Moksha by mail, a crash course in self realization, cosmic consciousness in four easy lessons. This supermarket has its chain all over the world, where the restless elite buy spiritual fast food. I am talking about this spirituality.

Plato in his dialogues has said many a wise thing, and one of them is – before starting any discussion decide on the meanings of words. Let us try to decide on the meaning of this word spirituality. Does it mean love for mankind that transcends all religion, caste, creed, race? Is that so? Then I have no problem. Except that I call it humanity. Does it mean love of plants, trees, mountains, oceans, rivers, animals? The non-human world? If that is so, again I have no problem at all. Except that I call it environmental consciousness. Does spirituality mean heartfelt regard for social institutions like marriage, parenthood, fine arts, judiciary, freedom of expression. I have no problem again sir, how can I disagree here? I call it civil responsibility. Does spirituality mean going into your own world trying to understand the meaning of your own life? Who can object on that? I call it self-introspection, self assessment. Does spirituality mean Yoga? Thanks to Patanjali, who has given us the details of Yoga, Yam, Yatam, aasan, pranayam…We may do it under any name, but if we are doing pranayam, wonderful. I call it healthcare. Physical fitness.

Now is it a matter of only semantics. If all this is spirituality, then what is the discussion. All these words that I have used are extremely respectable and totally acceptable words. There is nothing abstract or intangible about them. So why stick to this word spirituality? What is there in spirituality that has not been covered by all these words? Is there something? If that is so then what is that?

Somebody in return can ask me what is my problem with this word. I am asking to change it, leave it, drop it, make it obsolete but why so? I will tell you what is my reservation. If spirituality means all this then there is no discussion. But there is something else which makes me uneasy. In a dictionary, the meaning of spirituality is rooted in a word called "spirit". When mankind didn't know whether this earth is round or flat, he had decided that human beings are actually the combination of two things. Body and spirit. Body is temporary, it dies. But the spirit is, shall I say, non-biodegradable. In your body you have a liver and heart and intestines and the brain, but since the brain is a part of the body, and mind lies within the brain, it is inferior because ultimately the brain too shall die with the body, but don't worry, you are not going to die, because you are your spirit, and the spirit has the supreme consciousness that will remain, and whatever problem you have is because you listen to your mind. Stop listening to your mind. Listen to your spirit – the supreme consciousness that knows the cosmic truth. All right. It's not surprising that in Pune there is an ashram and I used to go there. I loved the oratory. On the gate of the lecture hall there was a placard. Leave your shoes and minds here. There are other gurus who don't mind if you carry your shoes. But minds?…sorry.

Now, if you leave your mind what do you do? You need the Guru to find the next station of consciousness. That hides somewhere in the spirit. He has reached the supreme consciousness, he knows the supreme truth. But can he tell you. No sir, he cannot tell you. So can you find out on your own? No sir, you need the guru for that. You need him but he cannot guarantee that you will know the ultimate truth… and what is that ultimate truth? What is the cosmic truth? Relating to cosmos? I have really not been able to understand that. The moment we step out of the solar system the first star is Alpha.Centueri It is just four light years away. How do I relate to that!! What do I do!!

So the emperor is wearing robes that only the wise can see. And the emperor is becoming bigger and bigger. And there are more and more wise people who are appreciating the robe.

I used to think that actually spirituality is the second line of defence for the religious people. When they get embarrassed about traditional religion, when it starts looking too down-market, they hide behind this smokescreen of cosmos and super consciousness. But that is not the complete truth. Because the clientele of traditional religion and spirituality is different. You take the map of the world, you start marking places which are extremely religious, within India or outside India, Asia, Latin America, Europe…wherever. You will find that wherever there is lot of religion there is lack of human rights. There is repression. Anywhere. Our Marxist friends used to say that religion is the opium of poor masses, the sigh of the oppressed. I don't want to get into that discussion. But spirituality nowadays is definitely the tranquilizer of the rich.

You see that the clientele is well heeled, it is the affluent class. Alright, so the guru gets power, high self esteem, status, wealth…(which is not that important), power…and lot of wealth too. What does the disciple get? When I looked at them carefully I realized that there are categories and categories of these disciples. It's not a monolith. There are different kinds of followers. Different kinds of disciples. One, who is rich, successful, doing extremely well in his life, making money, gaining property. Now, since he has everything he wants absolution too. So guru tells him – whatever you are doing, is "niskaam karma" – you are playing a role, this is all "Maya", the money that you are making everyday and the property that you are acquiring, you are not emotionally involved with it. You are just playing a role. You come to me because you are in search of eternal truth. Maybe your hands are dirty, but your spirit and soul are pure. And this man, he starts feeling wonderful about himself. For seven days he is exploiting the world, and at the end of the seven days when he goes and sits at the feet of the guru, he feels – I am a sensitive person.

There is another category. That too comes from the affluent class. But he is not the winner like the first one. You know winning or losing that is also relative. A rickshaw-wallah if he is gambling on the pavement and wins hundred rupees will feel victorious, and if a corporate man makes only 300 million dollars, while his brother is a billionaire, he will feel like a failure. Now, what does this rich failure do? He needs a guru to tell him – who says that you have failed? You have other worlds, you have another vision, you have other sensibility that your brother doesn't have. He thinks that he is successful…wrong. The world is very cruel, you know. The world tells you honestly, no sir, you have got three out of ten. The other person has seven out of ten. Fair. They will treat you that way and they will meet you that way. There he gets compassion. There he plays another game.

Another category. And I will talk about this category not with contempt or with any sense of superiority, not any bitterness, but all the compassion available one that is a very big client of this modern day guru and today's spirituality, is the unhappy rich wife.

Here is a person who put all her individuality, aspirations and dreams, and her being at the altar of marriage and in return she got an indifferent husband. Who at the most gave her a couple of children. Who is rather busy with his work, or busy with other women. This woman needs a shoulder. She knows that she is an existential failure. There is nothing to look forward to. She has a vacuous, empty, comfortable yet purposeless life. It's sad, but it is true.

Then there are other people. Who are suddenly traumatized. They lose a child. The wife dies. The husband dies. Or they lose the property, they lose their business. Something happens that shocks them and they ask – why me? So who do they ask? They go to the Guru. And the guru tells him that this is Karma. But there is another world if you follow me. Where there is no pain. Where there is no death. Where there is immortality. Where there is only bliss. He tells all these unhappy souls – follow me and I will take you to the heaven, to the paradise, where there is no pain. I am sorry sir, it is disappointing but true that there is no such paradise. Life will always have a certain quota of pain, of hurts, a possibility of defeats. But they do get some satisfaction.

Somebody may ask me if they are feeling better, if they are getting peace then what is your problem. It reminds me of a story that I have read. It's an old Indian story told by a sage, that a hungry dog finds a dry bone and tries to eat it and in the process bites its own tongue. And the tongue is bleeding and the dog feels that he is getting nourishment from the bone.

I feel sad. I don't want them, these adults, to behave like this because I respect them. Drugs and alcohol are also supposed to give mental peace and serenity, but is that kind of piece or serenity desirable or advisable? The answer is no. Any mental peace that is not anchored in rational thoughts is nothing but self-deception. Any serenity that takes you away from truth is just an illusion – a mirage. I know that there is a kind of a security in this which is like the security of a tri-cycle. If you are riding a tri-cycle you can't fall. But adults do not ride tricycles. They ride bi-cycles. They can even fall. It is a part of life.

There is one more kind. Like everybody who is the member of the golf club is not fond of golf. In the same way everybody who is seen in an ashram is not a spiritual person. A film producer who is an ardent follower of a guru, whose ashram is about two hours from Delhi once told me that you must go to my Guru. You will see the who's who of Delhi there. Let me tell you my Guruji is another Chandraswami in the making. Now this is a contact point for networking.

I have great respect for people who are spiritual, or religious, and in spite of this they are good people. And I have a reason. I believe that like every emotion or feeling, you have a limitation.

I am feeling slightly pressurized about time, can I get another five six minutes please…may I sir… Rajiv Mehrotra "yes you can"

You can see upto a point. And you can't see further. You can hear upto a point, but beyond that you won't be able to register sounds. You can mourn upto a point and then you will get over your mourning. You will feel happy upto a point and then you will be through with your happiness. Same way, I am sure that you have a certain capacity for nobility also. You can be as noble and no more. Now suppose if we count this capacity for nobility in the average man as ten units, now anybody who goes to pray in a mosque five times is consuming his five units, there anybody who goes to the temple or sits in the feet of the Guru, he is consuming his quota of nobility there. And in a totally non-productive manner. I don't go to pray. I don't pray. If I don't go to any guru, or mosque or temple or church, what do I do with my quota of nobility. I will have to help somebody, feed somebody, give shelter to somebody. People who use their quota in worshipping, praying, adoring religious figures and spiritual figures, in spite of that, if they are left with some nobility, hats off to them.

You may ask me, that if I have this kind of ideas about religious people, why should I show such reverence for Krishan and Kabir and Gautam? You can ask me. I'll tell you why I respect them. These were the great contributors in the human civilization. They were born in different points of time in history, in different situations. But one thing is common in them. They stood up against injustice. They fought for the downtrodden. Whether it was Ravana, or Kansha or the pharaoh or the high priests or the British Samrajya in front of Gandhi – or the communal empire of Firoze Tughlaq in the times of Kabir, they stood against that.

And what surprises me, and confirms my worst feelings, that today, the enlightened people who know the cosmic truth, none of them stand up against the powers that be. None of them raises his voice against the ruling classes and the privileged classes. Charity, yes, when it is approved and cleared by the establishment and the powers that be. But I want to know which was that guru which took the dalits to those temples which are still closed to them. I want to know which was that guru who stood for the rights of the Adivasis against the thekedaars and contractors. I want to know which was that guru who spoke about the victims of Gujarat and went to their relief camps. They are human beings.

Sir…It is not enough to teach the rich how to breathe. It is the rich mans recreation. It is the hypocrites' pretension. It is a mischievous deception. And you know that in the oxford dictionary, mischievous deception is a term that is used for a word, and that word is…HOAX.

Thank you.


Sunday, May 9, 2010

Remembering Rabindera Nath Tagore on 150th Birth Anniverssary: Bhagat Singh picks up the following basic concept

Bhagat Singh Jail Note Book page 38

"Capitalism  and Commercialism"

Rabindra Nath's address to an assembly of Japanese students:
 You had your own industry in Japan; how scrupu|ously honest and true it  was, you can see by its products - by their grace and strength, their
 conscientiousness in details where they can hardly be observed. But the  tidal wave of falsehood has swept over your land from that part of the  world where business is business and honesty is followed merely as the  best policy. Have you never felt shame when you see the trade
 advertisements, not only plastering the whole town with lies and
 exaggerations, but invadlng the green fields, where the peasants do their  honest labour, and to hilltops which greet the first pure light of the mornlng?
  . . . This commercia|ism wlth its barbarity of ugly decoratlons is a terrible  menace to all humanity, because it is setting up the ideal of power over the perfection. It is making the cult of self-seeking exult in lts naked  shamelessness. Its movements are violent, its noise is discordantly loud.  It is carrying its own damnation because it is trampllng lnto distortton  . . . the humanity upon whlch it stands. It is strenuously turning out  money at the cost of happiness . . . The vital ambition of the present  clvllisatlon of Europe ls to have the excluslve possession of the devil.

Friday, April 23, 2010

Lahore conspiracy case record concerning Martyrdom of Shahid Bhagat Singh ,Rajguru and Sukhdev handed over by Pakistan High Court

Gurukul Kangri Vishav Vadyala Hardwar Vice Chancellor gets copy of proceedings of Lahore Consipiracy Case 1930 from Pakistan. This is reported by Shalini Joshi BBC Correspondent

लाहौर केस के दस्तावेज़ भारत में

<span title=लाहौर दस्तावेज़" height="170" width="226">

लाहौर षडयंत्र केस के मूल दस्तावेज़ लाहौर हाईकोर्ट में रखे हुए हैं

भारतीय स्वतंत्रता आंदोलन का सबसे विवादास्पद और चर्चित मुक़दमे 'लाहौर षडयंत्र केस' के कोर्ट ट्रायल के दस्तावेज़ पहली बार भारत लाए गए हैं.

इस मुकद्दमे के दस्तावेज़ की प्रति लाहौर हाईकोर्ट ने हरिद्वार स्थित गुरूकुल कांगड़ी विश्वविद्यालय को सौंपी हैं.

क़रीब 2000 पन्ने के इस दुर्लभ दस्तावेज़ को विश्वविद्यालय के अतिविशिष्ट श्रद्धानंद संग्रहालय में रखा गया है.

उल्लेखनीय है कि आठ अप्रैल 1929 को भगत सिंह और बटुकेश्वर दत्त ने विधानसभा में बम फेंकने के बाद खुद ही गिरफ्तारी दे दी थी. उनका मक़सद था अदालत को मंच बनाकर अपने क्रांतिकारी विचारों का प्रसार करना.

बाद में जब ये पाया गया कि भगत सिंह ब्रिटिश पुलिस अधीक्षक जेपी साण्डर्स की हत्या में भी शामिल थे तो उन पर और उनके दो साथियों राजगुरू और सुखदेव पर देशद्रोह के साथ-साथ हत्या का भी मुक़द्दमा चला जो लाहौर षडयंत्र केस या भगत सिंह ट्रायल के नाम से इतिहास में विख्यात है.

अहम दस्तावेज़

इन दस्तावेज़ों में यह शामिल है कि मुक़दमों के दौरान भगत सिंह और उनके साथियों ने क्या कहा था.

इसके अनुसार भगत सिंह ने असेंबली में बम फेंकने के बाद जो पर्चे फेंके थे उसमें लिखा था, "किसी आदमी को मारा जा सकता है लेकिन विचार को नहीं."

भगत सिंह ने 'बड़े साम्राज्यों का पतन हो जाता है लेकिन.विचार हमेशा जीवित रहते हैं' और 'बहरे हो चुके लोगों को सुनाने के लिये ऊंची आवाज जरूरी है' जैसी बातें भी पर्चों में लिखी थीं.

हमारे लिये ये गर्व की बात है. विश्वविद्यालय की स्थापना गुजरांवला में ही हुई थी जो अब पाकिस्तान में है. मैं पाकिस्तान के मुख्य न्यायाधीश के निमंत्रण पर लाहौर गया हुआ था. वहां उन्होंने वो कक्ष और रिकॉर्ड दिखाए जो इस मुकद्दमे से जुड़े हुए थे. मैंने इसकी एक प्रति के लिये अनुरोध किया और मुझे खुशी है कि पाकिस्तान हाईकोर्ट ने इसे स्वीकार कर लिया

प्रोफ़ेसर स्वतंत्र कुमार, कुलपति, कांगड़ी विश्वविद्यालय

इतिहासकार कहते हैं कि इसी घटना के बाद उन पर देशद्रोह का मुकद्दमा चला जिसने एकबारगी पूरे ब्रिटिश राज को थर्रा दिया था और देश भर में जन-आक्रोश उमड़ पड़ा था.

विश्वविद्यालय के कुलपति प्रोफेसर स्वतंत्र कुमार इन दस्तावेज़ों को भारत लाए जाने को बड़ी उपलब्धि मानते हैं.

वे कहते हैं, "हमारे लिये ये गर्व की बात है. विश्वविद्यालय की स्थापना गुजरांवला में ही हुई थी जो अब पाकिस्तान में है. मैं पाकिस्तान के मुख्य न्यायाधीश के निमंत्रण पर लाहौर गया हुआ था. वहां उन्होंने वो कक्ष और रिकॉर्ड दिखाए जो इस मुकद्दमे से जुड़े हुए थे. मैंने इसकी एक प्रति के लिये अनुरोध किया और मुझे खुशी है कि पाकिस्तान हाईकोर्ट ने इसे स्वीकार कर लिया."

वो कहते हैं, "कई बार आदमी काम करता है और उसे अंजाम पता नहीं होता लेकिन इन तीन युवकों का जज़्बा देखकर लगता है कि उन्होंने अंजाम ही सबसे आगे रखा और फाँसी के लिये ही तैयारी की."

पाँच मई 1930 को शुरू हुआ ये मुक़द्दमा 11 सितंबर 1930 तक चला था.

इतिहासकार कहते हैं कि ये मुकद्दमा इसलिये भी अभूतपर्व था क्योंकि इसमें क़ानूनी न्याय तो दूर की बात न्याय के प्राकृतिक सिद्धांत को भी तिलांजलि दे दी गई थी जिसके तहत हर अभियुक्त को अपना पक्ष रखने का अवसर दिया जाता है.

<span title=भगत सिंह" height="170" width="226">

संग्रहालय के निदेशक कहते हैं कि इससे भगत सिंह पर शोध करने वालों को मदद मिलेगी

वे बताते हैं कि सरकार ने एक अध्यादेश निकालकर ऐसे अधिकार हासिल कर लिये जिसकी मदद से वो गवाही के सामान्य नियमों और अपील के अधिकार के बिना भगतसिंह और उनके साथियों पर मुकद्दमा चला सकती थी.

तमाम विरोधी स्वरों और गांधीजी के आग्रह के बावजूद 23 मार्च 1931 को तीनों को फांसी पर लटका दिया गया.

इन दस्तावेज़ों में पुलिस अधिकारियों का पक्ष और जजों की टिप्पणियों के साथ अदालत की हर कार्यवाही का विस्तार से वर्णन है.

जजों का फ़ैसला सहित पूरी कार्यवाही फारसी में लिखी गई है हालांकि नाम अंग्रेजी में लिखे हुए हैं.

संग्रहालय के निदेशक डॉ. प्रभात कहते हैं, "भगत सिंह की विचारधारा को लेकर कई धारणाएँ और मान्यताएँ है और उनके अध्ययन में ये दस्तावेज़ काफ़ी उपयोगी होगा."

Thursday, January 21, 2010

26th January - Oath of complete Independence

Teesra Sawtantrta Abhiyan (Third Freedom Movement )
The oath of Complete independence was taken and 26th Jan was declared as Sampuran Azadi Divas.

This historical document has been missing. Why? The Study of this document will explain.


As a great saying that freedom is recognition of necessity. The historical necessity can be under stood by finding cause behind the objective conditions . The objective conditions under the British rule were the devastating effect of great famines which killed tens of lacs followed by killing of same size by plague and other disease epidemics . The poverty into which crores of hard working masses were pushed in and peasantry was drowning under debt and suffering under coheresion in spite of sufficient food availability they were dying in famines.

The conditions of masses were deteriorating after all the assurances of 1833 , declaration of Victoria of 1858 and number of following declarations of assurance of good government capable of addressing problem of masses, The farmer was under debt and lost his purchasing power so were the artisan class whose handicraft was destroyed by unfavorable policies. The pathetic conditions produced by British Rule were no longer a puzzle as the inner government documents were accessed by Dada Bhai Narojee and R C Dutt an ICS turned professor into London University.

In 1901 Dada Bhai Naroojee after failure of all efforts to tell British Government of Indian masses conditions , he published a book " Poverty and UnBritish Like Government" .He emphasized that poverty in India has been caused by drainage of resources from India and managing it to fulfill the greed of British ruling class.

Then in 1906 he proposed that the poverty can only be removed by " Swaraj" , when the government is run to distribute wealth to give purchasing power to the masses.

On the other hand R C Dutt came forward with "Economic History of India Under Victorian Era ". This was also published in 1901. Poverty and low wages were among the indirect products of colonial rule. Romesh Dutt traced a decline in standards of living to the nineteenth-century deindustrialization of the subcontinent and the narrowing of sources of wealth which followed:

India in the eighteenth century was a great manufacturing as well as great agricultural country, and the products of the Indian loom supplied the markets of Asia and of Europe. It is, unfortunately, true that the East Indian Company and the British Parliament ... discouraged Indian manufactures in the early years of British rule in order to encourage the rising manufactures of England . . . millions of Indian artisans lost their earnings; the population of India lost one great source of their wealth.

He also forced his analysis of famines which were recurring every other year and killing tens of lacs. 1905 he purposed in Banaras Congress that Swedeshi is the only solution to this problem.

Thus the basic cause underlying Poverty and Depleted condition of Peasantry and masses who suffered due to great famines was tarced into the evils of British Imperialism .

The Swadeshi was made more potent by adding the boycott of imported goods to make it . This idea of boycott was contributed by Bal Gangadhar Tilak . The victory achieved in reversing Bengal partition in 1906 and Punjab colonization rules in 1907 were the great successes of "Jan Rashterwad " the nationalism of masses which emerged strongly in the country . This was followed in 1913 by great awareness of Gadar Party on whose one call 8000 indian migrants to America and Canada returned to India with an aim of establishing the democratic rule of equality, liberty and Fraternity. The young leadership of 19 year old Kartar Singh Sarabha along with 22 year old Vishnu Ganesh Pingle not only unified the various regions but became great inspiration for the coming generations. Gadar party was grown out of a consciousness that even your hard labour and honour is not safe in foreign countries till there is a strong pro-people government at home. This can only be achieved by throwing the British out. They made great sacrifices. This was followed by Hindustan Republican association under the leadership of Ram Parshad Bismal and Ashfaq Ula khan . The group of revolutionaries pushed the idea of complete independence further by direct action against British rule and thus weakening it. In the mean time following Jallianwala Bagh , Gandhijee invited masses to join the national movement for "Swaraj in a year" . But that could not be achieved. Molana Husrat muhani a militant U P leader came up with a proposal that calls for "Complete Independence" in 1921. The debate continued for some time between the leaders who were feeling satisfied with Dominion status, which meant rule by Indian but under the Umbrella of British Imperial policies. The other group felt it strongly that nothing short of Complete Independence could be effective way to eradicate poverty and minimize damage caused by famines. Within congress Netajee Subhash and Pt. Jawahar lal Nehru purposed complete Independence in 1928 Calcutta congress. But Mahatma jee got it postponed by one year in a hope that British may grant something closer to Dominion Status. In the mean time Shahid Bhagat Singh and his colleagues interjected with a more clear ideas managing society for "permanent peace " and eradication of poverty and other factors which disable the masses. The slogan raised by Bhagat Singh which echoed in Indian masses was " Down Down with Imperialism and Long live Revolution" . They also raised the issue of how to organize the society for the benefit of the working masses. He strongly made a call for Socialistic patern of society. On 13th September the Death of Jatin das after 63 days of hunger strike in jail so enthusitically received by masses that lacs of people paid him tribute at stations on his dead body's journey from Lahore to Calcutta. If there were three lac people at Lahore then at Calcutta there were six lac people marching with his body. This changed the political scene. Gandhijee declined presidentship of Lahore congress and projected Pt Nehru as a youth leader to be president. The one year period was also closing hence Netajee pushed his resolution of Complete Independence as in last year. It was passed on the mid night of 31st Dec,1929. It also declared that now onward 26th January will be celebrated as " Complete Independence day" i.e "Sampuran Azadi Diwas." So having appreciated that complete independence was adopted as a solution to the problems of masses. Gandhi jee these words on 30th Jauary ,1930 make it ample clear.

The people are " not agitating for a shadow. Hundreds of thousands of people do not gather … in order to secure independence in mere name, they gather in the hope that the glow of freedom, when it comes, will be felt in the remotest village. The greatest evil is undoubtedly the economic pressure and the corroding feeling of inferiority which the people experience in every walk of life."

Gandhijee drafted the oath of complete independence which is reproduced here under.

Declaration for Complete Independence January 26

" We believe that it is the inalienable right of the Indian people, as of any other people, to have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of their toil and have the necessities of life so that they may have full opportunities of growth. We believe also that if any government deprives a people of these rights and oppresses them, the people have a further right to alter it or to abolish it. The British Government in India has not only deprived the Indian people of their freedom, but has based itself on the exploitation of the masses, and has ruined India economically, politically, culturally and spiritually. We believe therefore that India must sever the British connection and attain purna swaraj or complete independence.

India has been ruined economically. The revenue derived from our people is out of all proportion to our income. Our average income is 7 pice (less than two pence) per day, and of the heavy taxes we pay, 20 per cent are raised from the land revenue derived from the peasantry and 3 per cent from the salt tax, which falls most heavily on the poor.

Village industries, such as hand-spinning, have been destroyed, heaving the peasantry idle for at least four months in the year, and dulling their intellect for want of handicrafts, and nothing has been substituted, as in other countries, for the crafts thus destroyed.

Customs and currency have been so manipulated as to heap further burdens on the peasantry. The British manufactured goods constitute the bulk of our imports. Customs duties betrary clear partiality for British manufactures, and are venue from them is used not to lessen the burden on the masses but for sustaining a highly extravagant administration. Still more arbitrary has been the manipulation of the exchange ratio which has resulted in millions being drained away from the country.

Politically, India's status has never been so reduced as under the British regime. No reforms have given real political power to the people. The tallest of us have to bend before foreign authority. The rights of free expression of opinion and free association have been denied to us, and many of our countrymen are compelled to live in exile abroad and cannot return to their homes. All administrative talent is killed, and the masses have to be satisfied with petty village offices and clerkships.

Culturally, the system of education has torn us from our moorings and our training has made us hug the very chains that bind us. Spiritually, compulsory disarmament has made us unmanly, and the presence of an alien army of occupation, employed with deadly effect to crush in us the spirit of resistance, has made us think that we cannot look after ourselves or put up a defence against foreign aggression, or even defend our homes and families from the attacks of thieves, robbers and miscreants.

We hold it to be a crime against man and God to submit any longer to a rule that has caused this fourfold disaster to our country. We recognize, however, that the most effective way of gaining our freedom is not through violence. We will therefore prepare ourselves, by withdrawing, so far as we can, all voluntary association from the British Government, and will prepare for civil disobedience, including non-payment of taxes. We are convinced that if we can but withdraw our voluntary help and stop payment of taxes without doing violence, even under provocation, the end of this inhuman rule is assured. We therefore hereby solemnly resolve to carry out the Congress instructions issued from time to time for the purpose of establishing purna swaraj. "

Young India, 23-1-1930

Where are we today

Where is that complete Independence? 35 Crore are living with less that 12 ruppee per day income , then other 45 crore are living with income less than 20 rupee a day.

Let us be clear about the falseness of development or growth of 7percent. What drives it?

Agriculture which provide employment to 60 percent population and contribute 17.2 percent to GDP has stagnated growth. Industry employ 12 percent of workforce and contribute 29 percent to GDP has a growth around one or two percent. Service sector which employ 25 percent and contribute 23 percent to GDP has a growth rate of 4 to 5 % , but mining sector which employ hardly 2 to 3 % contribute 30 percent to GDP and is growing at the rate of 9 to 10%. Read with this the other factor that contribution of this sector to tax collection is hardly 5 to 7%. Hence it is not drain of our natural resources now.

The British ruled with the boot of Military bureaucracy so are we now Military Budget has been increased many fold in last few years. Current budget is 1,41,703 crore. The Military bureaucracy got the shot in arm after 1971 and thus got success in turning the monument of 90 thousand cold bloodedly murdered Indian soldiers in first world war as a centre of the 26th January national celebrations.

The shameful act on the part of Indian nation is entirely forgetting the self sacrificing crores of patriots who contributed by life, property and relatives without any expectations to the Indian Independence movement from 1757 to 1947. They reflect unity of Indian rising above religion, cast and creed differences. Where is the monument for them? This monument of United strong India should we owe our freedom and republic. The monument which will remind us that interest of country and future is to be given preference over individual and present. Self less service is the great service.

Remembering Netajee's Advice

On Netajee Subhash Chander Bose's birthday, the best tribute is to remember and follow his declaration in the Anti Compromise conference at Ramgarh ,Bihar on 19th March 1940. He warned that no compromise should be made with imperialism. The compromise with British imperialism will create such a problem that for decades the country will feel the pain. How true he was. To oppose imperialist designs on loot of natural resources , distortion in education system, exploitive health system and getting our agricultural system destroyed by introduction of sterile and poisonous seed technologies, is paying tribute to Neta jee.